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1. Extreme poverty figures are for $1.08 per day in 1990 and 2001.
2. Scheduled for publication in early 2005.
3. Language often fosters confusion in distinguishing between inputs and outcomes. “Health,” for instance, describes both a sector (or ministry) and an outcome resulting from a complex set of inputs across sectors. “Education” is similar. “Hunger,” in contrast, is a complex outcome but not a sector or ministry.



Abdullah II. 2004. “Address to World Economic Forum.” Presented at Annual Meeting, January 23, Davos, Switzerland. [Retrieved on November 30, 2004, from link ].
Barrios, Salvador, Luisito Bertinelli, and Eric Strobl. 2003. “Dry Times in Africa: Rainfall and Africa's Growth Performance.” Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE) Discussion Paper 2003/61. Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium.
BBC Monitoring Africa. 2003. “Tanzanian President Calls for Terrorism to Be Tackled in Its Totality.” January 11.
Blair, T. 2004. “Address to African Union.” October 7, Addis Ababa. [Retrieved on November 30, 2004, from link ].
Burnside, C., and D. Dollar. 2000. “Aid, Policies, and Growth.” American Economic Review 90 (4): 847–68.
Bush, G. W. 2002. “Address to the Inter-American Development Bank.” March 14, Washington, D.C. [Retrieved on November 30, 2004, from link ].
Chen, S., and M. Ravallion. 2004. “How Have the World's Poorest Fared since the Early 1980s?” Policy Research Paper 3341. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Chirac, J. 2004. “Scaling Up Poverty Reduction—A Global Learning Process.” Address for the opening of the World Bank Conference, May 26, Shanghai. [Retrieved on November 30, 2004, from link ].

CIESIN (Center for International Earth Science Information Network), Columbia University. 2002. “National Aggregates of Geospatial Data: Population, Landscape and Climate Estimates (PLACE).” Palisades, N.Y. [ link ].
Clemens, M., S. Radelet, and R. Bhavnani. 2004. “Counting Chickens When They Hatch: The Short-Term Effect of Aid on Growth.” Working Paper 44. Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C.
CMH. (Commission on Macroeconomics and Health). 2001. Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development. Geneva: World Health Organization. [ link ].
da Silva, Luiz Ignacio Lula. 2004. “Statement at the 59th Session of the UN General Assembly.” September 21, 2004, New York. [Retrieved on November 30, 2004, from link ].
de Rato y Figaredo, Rodrigo. 2004. “Africa Needs International Help to Turn Promises into Progress.” Business Day , November 12.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2003. The State of Food Insecurity in the World . Rome.
Harrison, M., J. Klugman, and E. Swanson. 2003. Are Poverty Reduction Strategies Undercutting the Millennium Development Goals? An Empirical Review . Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
IDA (International Development Association) and IMF (International Monetary Fund). 2003. “Republic of Mali: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Joint Staff Assessment.”.
Kiszewski, A., A. Mellinger, A. Spielman, P. Malaney, S.E. Sachs, and J. Sachs. 2004. “A Global Index Representing the Stability of Malaria Transmission.” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70(5):486–98.
Koizumi, J. 2004. “A New United Nations for the New Era.” Address to the 59th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, September 21, New York. [Retrieved on November 30, 2004, from link ].
Miguel, E., S. Satyanath, and E. Sergenti. 2004. “Economic Shocks and Civil Conflict: An Instrumental Variables Approach.” Journal of Political Economy 112 (4): 725–53.
Mkapa, Benjamin William. 2004. “A Better Way to Help the Least Developed Countries.” International Herald Tribune July 13.
Obasanjo, Olosagun. 2004. “Statement at the 59th Session of the United Nations General Assembly.” September 23, 2004, New York. [Retrieved on November 30, 2004, from link ].
OECD/DAC (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Development Assistance Committee). Online DAC Database. [Retrieved on December 7, 2004, from link ].
———. Forthcoming. Development Co-operation Report 2005. Paris.
Schröder, Gerhard. 2001. “Poverty Reduction—A Global Responsibility. Program of Action 2015.” Foreword.
UN (United Nations). 1970. “Resolution 2626 (XXV).” United Nations General Assembly. October 24, New York.
———. 2000. “United Nations Millennium Declaration.” A/RES/55/2, Section II. New York.
———. 2002. “Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development.” A/CONF.198/11. New York.
———. 2004. “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility.” Report of the Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. New York.
UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), Statistics Division. n.d. “World and Regional Trends.” Millennium Indicators Database; based on data provided by the United Nations Children's Fund, World Health Organization, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [ link ]
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2003. Human Development Report 2003: The Millennium Development Goals: A Compact among Nations to End Human Poverty . New York.
———. 2004a. Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor . Report of the Commission on the Private Sector and Development to the UN Secretary-General. New York.
———. 2004b. Human Development Report 2004 . New York: Oxford University Press.
UN-HABITAT. 2003. The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 . Earthscan: London. [ link ].
UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Combating AIDS in the Developing World. Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines, Working Group on HIV/AIDS. New York.
———. 2005b. Coming to Grips with Malaria in the New Millennium . Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines, Working Group on Malaria. New York.
———. 2005c. Environment and Human Well-Being: A Practical Strategy . Task Force on Environmental Sustainability. New York.
———. 2005d. Health, Dignity, and Development: What Will It Take? Task Force on Water and Sanitation. New York.
———. 2005e. Halving Hunger: It Can Be Done . Task Force on Hunger. New York.
———. 2005f. A Home in the City . Task Force on Improving the Lives of Slum Dwellers. New York.
———. 2005g. Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development . Task Force on Science, Technology, and Innovation. New York.
———. 2005h. Investing in Strategies to Reverse the Global Incidence of TB . Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines, Working Group on TB. New York.
———. 2005i. Prescription for Healthy Development: Increasing Access to Medicines . Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines, Working Group on Access to Essential Medicines. New York.
———. 2005j. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women . Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. New York.
———. 2005k. Toward Universal Primary Education: Investments, Incentives, and Institutions . Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. New York.
———. 2005l. Trade for Development . Task Force on Trade. New York.
———. 2005m. Who's Got the Power? Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children . Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. New York.
———. 2005n. Handbook for MDG Best Practice. New York.
USAID (United States Agency for International Development), UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS), WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund), and the POLICY Project. 2004. “Coverage of Selected Services for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Support in Low and Middle Income Countries in 2003.” Washington, D.C.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2002. “Scaling Up the Response to Infectious Diseases.” Geneva. [ link ].
WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund), and UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund). 2003. “Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA.” Geneva.

World Bank. 2003. “Supporting Sound Policies with Adequate and Appropriate Financing.” Report DC2003-0016 prepared for the Development Committee.

———. 2004a. World Development Report 2005: A Better Investment Climate for Everyone . New York: Oxford University Press.
———. 2004b. Doing Business in 2004: Understanding Regulation . Washington, D.C.
———. 2004c. Global Development Finance 2004 . Washington, D.C.
———. 2004d. World Development Indicators 2004 . Washington, D.C.
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